Tag Archives: multi-channel marketing

e-commerce – it’s crowded out there …

shopping malls

In the world of e-commerce, it can be difficult to become known, seen or heard, particularly if you’re an SME without deep pockets to spend on the marketing machine.  There’s so much activity in the digital world that, as a customer, it’s a little like going down a high street with rows of shops that are thousands deep and thousands of storeys high, each offering different goods – and somehow you have to find what you want without a map.

This means that helping your customers find you has never been more important.  Whether it’s PR or celebrity endorsement, e-mail or TV, the need for publicity and marketing through multiple channels is an increasingly essential element for businesses in the world of e-commerce.

A friend of mine had seven siblings – and, as a child, getting the attention of one of her parents when they were all together at mealtimes could be tough.  Her tactics ranged from shouting to crying to getting up and quietly speaking directly into an ear.

Which is just like marketing.  Broadcast, social media, PR and advertising all offer an opportunity to be heard by your target market – if they’re listening.  But sometimes it can be helpful to deliver a personal or private message directly into the ear of the individual you are targeting.  That’s what direct marketing is about – whether it’s email, direct mail, telephone or social.  And it’s even more powerful if used in combination with an awareness-generating channel in the first place so that there’s recognition when the direct marketing message is received.

For me, that’s the challenge and fun of multi-channel marketing – using all the relevant resources available to get your message across, and making the message relevant to specific individuals.  And with the sheer volume and detail of data available now, there’s no real reason not to do an exceptional job of identifying, understanding, targeting and reaching your customers with appropriate messages and offers.

Even better, you can actually measure the results and see how wisely you’ve spent your budget – an essential part of planning your next campaign.

In our marketing and data consultancy, Tuffill Verner Associates, we have helped businesses generate awareness and sales both on and offline.  With over 30 years experience we provide results-driven, data-led, clear, tailored practical and creative advice to businesses who want to make the most out of their marketing activity.

If you’d like to chat about your business issues, please call Victoria on 01787 277742 or email victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk

 

Direct Mail – not just for dinosaurs …

TRexThis is just a small addendum to my post on Direct Mail last week.  I found a fascinating Millward Brown case study conducted for the Royal Mail which I wanted to share.  In Using Neuroscience to Understand the Role of Direct Mail, fMRI scanning was used to understand how the brain reacts both to physical and virtual stimuli.

The headline results from this study, are:

  • Tangible materials leave a deeper footprint in the brain
  • Physical material involves more emotional processing, which is important for memory and brand association
  • Physical materials produced more brain response connected with internal feelings, suggesting greater “internalization” of the ads

The Royal Mail’s James Kitovitz (Insight Manager) said:  “They successfully turned cutting-edge neuroscience into a practical marketing project, and delivered completely new insight identifying fascinating differences in levels of brain engagement for the two types. We have put the findings at the heart of our communications about the intrinsic power of direct mail, and how physical media have a place in any fully rounded marketing campaign.”

The research is fascinating and illustrates the real need for a fully integrated approach, using both physical and digital marketing material.

Thanks to Direct Mail Manager for pointing me in the direction of this article.

Whether you agree or disagree about Direct Mail’s role in the  marketing mix, or if you have a story to tell, just reply below and let’s have a chat about it…

Victoria Tuffill – victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk   01787 277742 or  07967 148398.   Have a squint at  our website.  And yes, we’re on Linked In, and Twitter

Blogs … does size matter?

size doesn't matter cropped top and bottom

For bloggers, the answer lies in a question.  Why do we blog in the first place? 

There can be a myriad of reasons – from enjoyment of the process to a desire to share knowledge or help others.  But for many, blogging is a business tool, which can be used to generate awareness of the business or individual’s credibility, reputation, knowledge, approach and even personality.

Clearly, there are many ways of achieving increased readership and awareness, whether through social media and online opportunities; use of email and newsletters;   sharing, liking, following and making pertinent, relevant and interesting remarks on other people’s blogs;  guest blogging works well in both directions, especially if you can get interesting writers with credibility to contribute. These will actually increase your readership because they’ll tell all their mates and colleagues that they’ve written a guest blog – and where to find it.

“I’m sorry this letter is so long, I didn’t have time to write a short one”

But this particular blog is concerned with size, or length, which, combined with frequency, can be important in terms of readership.  Starting with frequency, and two aspects in particular:

  1. What do the search engines need to find you and increase your readership?
  2. What do your readers want once they’ve found you?

search engine dogSearch engines rate frequency quite highly – particularly when the blog is relatively new.  So when setting out, it’s useful to provide a blog post several times a week – aiming for quality, good headlines, good subheads, and not forgetting that search engines need key words and tags.   Getting people to comment and discuss is also extremely useful and will spread the word.

Readers, on the other hand, are less concerned with frequency – and more concerned with quality and content.  Especially if they have “followed” your blog and are receiving emails or feeds which have to stand out from all their other emails and feeds.  So, while it is helpful to write and post regularly, writing when you have nothing to say will lead to a dull blog, and readership will plummet (though surely there are enough new developments and topics every day across industries and technology to keep blogs interesting, original, relevant and useful).

As far as size or length is concerned,  the fact that the excellent quotation above has been attributed to so many individuals – from Mark Twain to Ghandi, Pascal to George Bernard Shaw and more – is evidence of its truth.

Seth Godin, in my view, has it absolutely right.  He blogs frequently, sometimes more than once a day.  But he doesn’t feel obliged to write reams every time.  He simply says something relevant, interesting and full of insight – and does so either in many or just a few lines.  As a result, I – and many others – always take the time to read his latest blog – even if only fleetingly.

That, for me as a reader, is the measure of a successful blog – relevant, insightful, and a good read.  And in those circumstances, size is only relevant in that it needs to get all the points across as neatly as possible.

Of course, you may disagree – in which case, just reply below and let’s start a debate…

Victoria Tuffill – victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk   01787 277742 or  07967 148398.   Have a squint at  our website.  And yes, we’re on Linked In, and Twitter

Social media, offline and online media … joining the dots

Because social media is so relatively young, and fast moving, there is a view that it doesn’t need to follow traditional marketing rules.   This is simply not the case.

Social media is a fantastic marketing opportunity for businesses today – whether it’s  b2b, b2c, b2b2c or c2c.  But social plans built without a solid strategic foundation are doomed to failure. The building blocks are critical, and should include marketing strategy, target audience, customer and prospect communication, channel choices, content and integration with the overarching brand principles.  Any social media campaign should also be integrated with other online and offline channels such as print, telemarketing, DRTV, press ads, sales promotion or PR.

In my view, joining the dots between social media and any existing or new media channels, (whether online or offline) is critical.

There are six key elements in the social media process:

  1. Strategy
  2. Marketing planning
  3. Marketing implementation and integration
  4. Ongoing engagement and responsiveness
  5. Considering social media data
  6. Measuring results

If a business wants to develop a social media presence, it needs to allocate the time and resource to ensuring that these steps are managed.  Also, as part of the engagement strategy, just like any other marketing channel, regular social media activity needs to be scheduled and delivered.  It is also worth considering that social media operates 24 / 7, so there will be a need for businesses to consider how to monitor customer posts that occur out of hours and at weekends.

Joining the dots

Social media marketing needs to be integrated into existing online and offline  marketing activity, keeping the social media channels and messaging consistent, and producing a fully rounded, integrated marketing story for a brand.  To achieve this, consideration needs to be given to the brand itself, the company’s values, the overall marketing strategy, budgets (both in terms of money and resource), measurable goals, social strategy, and customer communications.  It is also essential to explore the key metrics and the end goals of the business before starting the process – whether that’s gaining customers, making sales, or revenue, donations or profit.

Strategy

The critical starting point part is the strategy, which requires thought, commitment and understanding of the business’s audience, and how best to communicate with prospects and customers.  What is the size of the market?  Any trends to be aware of? Who are your customers and prospects?  What are their needs?  What and why do they buy?  How much do they spend?  What does the competition look like?

Once that research is complete, you can begin to work out the communication strategy – how can you best make a connection with your specific target audience?  What are your brand values?  How to do you want to communicate with your customer or prospect – offline? online?  What should your website look like?  Is TV appropriate?  Or print?   Which social media best fit your goals?  Where and how is your audience they likely to engage with you?  Facebook?  Or Pinterest?  Or Google Plus?  Or You Tube?  Or a combination of all of them?  Is it about competitions, or building a network?  Understanding the demographics of the various social media channels is every bit as critical as creative, which – no matter how clever or witty or engaging – will fall on deaf ears if it’s inappropriately targeted.

Having made that decision, how can you link them all together into one over-arching message?  For me, social media is about creating an ineractive buzz – it’s about moving the conversation throughout the marketing channels both online and offline – teasing your customers into engaging with you – developing a brand and story, interrupting the story and moving it across channels all the time making the process fun, engaging and interactive.

Once you have engaged your audience, the job becomes increasing reach while maintaining engagement levels, coming up with fresh material and content … with the ultimate goal of making it easier and more appealing for your audience to buy from you.  And that’s the secret – you need to make them want to buy from you, recommend you to their friends and connections, talk about you.

Fully rounded activity

Having worked out which social media to integrate into your marketing activity, and how to make them engaging, build a calendar of events, posts, content and links.  And stick to it.  If you’re not able to guarantee you can keep the momentum going, don’t even think about social media.  It’s time-consuming, and can become a costly waste of time and resource if adopted on an ad-hoc basis.

Keep the activity alive – here are a couple of examples, both clever, with one slightly flawed, the other excellent:

Don’t fail to deliver on your promises

Daz has a great concept on Facebook where there’s a storyline developed along a soap opera theme involving characters from Cleaner Close.  The campaign works across channels – Daz’s Dive DRTV ad   pushes viewers to Facebook to see how the dive ends up.  BUT in this instance, Daz fails to deliver.  Though they draw viewers into the soap opera storyline, the dive is not shown in the video clip … which has clearly upset viewers who took the trouble to “comment” and express their disappointment.

A great example from Innocent

Then there’s the Innocent website – excellent in that it reflects the brand’s core values, is simple and clear to read, with great sales promotion concepts such as the Big Knit, great characters and strong links to Facebook and their blog.  It even has a link heading called “Bored?” – irresistible!

For me this is a great example of making social media work for a product which is essentially an impulse purchase.  It engages customers, builds loyalty, and keeps them coming back for more.  Not only is it fun, but it’s healthy too!   They bring the characters to life and engage their customers by running votes and competitions, their blog brings the story to life, and they pursue their brand values through charitable donations and links.

What’s clear about this activity is that it was not thought up in a day.  It was carefully planned and developed, the characters took time and budget to develop, and the activity is regularly managed and kept up to date.  In particular, there is a clear strategy and branding which is consistent through all Innocent’s marketing activity, both online and offline.

It is businesses who approach their social media strategy in such a way who will enjoy the greatest success.

We’re all for sharing knowledge and information and enjoy a healthy debate, so if you have any questions, views, tips or knowledge, please  just “reply” below.

Victoria Tuffill – Partner Tuffill Verner Associates – victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk 

 01787 277742 or  07967 148398.  

Feel free to visit our website.  And yes, we’re on Linked InTwitter  and Google+

Multi-channel marketing, data … and fly fishing

As  keen fly fishers, we’ve travelled to a variety of rivers throughout Scotland, Wales, Ireland and, more exotically, Iceland and Russia for Atlantic salmon, Arctic char,  sea trout, brown trout, greyling and any other species that is prepared to jump on the end of our lines.

Despite my propensity to fall into rivers (tricky in chest waders which can fill up fast if you get it wrong), the experience has always been delightful.  Not just for the fishing, but also for everything that surrounds it – good company, the sight, smell and sounds of the river,  the scenery, the wildlife, and the good company that almost invariably accompanies a week of fishing.

So what does this have to do with marketing? Actually, pretty much everything.

Understanding your customers

Firstly, whether you’re fishing or marketing, you need to understand your prey and their circumstances.  Is the river in spate?  Or is it a dry ditch?  Are there likely to be problems reaching the fish?  Or indeed, landing them?  In fact, where are the fish?  What are they doing?  And how many are there?  Are they migratory?  If so, when will they run?  Are they a good size?  Are they fat and healthy, or diseased and thin?  Are they young or old, male or female, shy or aggressive?

Reaching your customers and prospects

Then you need to consider how to reach them.  Is it tricky to cast?  Is it too deep to get in and wade to get closer or a better angle?   What’s the wind direction?  Is the water too warm or too cold?  Is it a long, arduous climb to the hill lochs?  If so, is the end result worth the effort?  Having invested the time and energy in climbing the hill, is it a good idea to spend a little more time up there?  Perhaps even pitch a tent and spend a night or two to catch the dawn and evening rises and make the most of the opportunity?   How can you best stalk the fish in the clear waters of a chalk stream? How can you avoid the weed – either before or after hooking a fish!

What are the fishes’ motivations for taking a fly?  Is there a particular size or colour that will appeal?  How should it best be presented?  At what angle, depth and speed?  How frequently should you cast over a fish?  Especially if you can’t see it so can’t be absolutely certain that it’s even there.  And what do you do if a fish takes your fly, but not properly?   Vary the speed?  The depth?  Change the fly?  Go for something larger?  Or smaller?  Or a different pattern?

In addition to all of that, there’s a need to identify and understand the competition – Seals?  Otters?  Commercial fisheries?  Bears, or other predators?

Depending on the answers, you need to use appropriate and varied techniques to catch your fish.  For example, sea trout are shy creatures, best caught at night.  This means fishing in the dark, so you need to do your research during the day – spotting fish where you can, identifying likely fish-holding lies, working out the length of cast you’ll need, the speed and depth of the water.  That way you have the knowledge you need to have a fair chance of getting your fly out to the right place and fishing it well.

In a chalk stream where the water’s very clear, you need to stalk your brown trout, making sure you can’t be seen, then lay the fly gently upstream on the surface of the water so that it drifts right over their nose and becomes irresistible.

Salmon are different again.  Here you need to be able to read the water and understand where the fish will lie, then make sure you put the fly where they can see it and make them want it.  And it has to be the right fly, moving at the right speed and in the right way.  And when one takes, you don’t “strike” in the same way as for a trout.  Actually, Atlantic salmon don’t even eat when they’re in the river, so they need to be enticed to take your fly for other reasons.

Understanding your customers and prospects

Though it might be more accurate – and certainly more tactful – to refer to your potential customers as prospects rather than prey, all these issues equally impact marketers.  What’s the economic climate?  How much money is out there for consumers to spend on your products?  How much effort and budget is required to acquire a particular customer – and are they worth it to your business?  Where do they go to buy?  Online?  Over the telephone?  Bricks and mortar?  Do you need to segment your marketing to appeal to different lifestyles and demographics?  And is your product a must-have?  If not, how can you encourage consumers to buy – particularly in a poor economy, when your competition is as hungry as you so you need to fight harder to win – and keep – customers.

Stage one is understanding your prospect.  Who are they?  Male?  Female?  Young?  Old?  Parents?  Single? Homeowners?  Students? Living at home?  Renting?  Where are they in their lifecycle?

Where do they live?  What’s on their mind?   What, why, when and how often do they buy? Is there a seasonal bias? What’s their disposable income?    What do they read or watch on TV or online?  What technology do they use?  Tablets?  Smarphones?  Smart TVs?  Or paper?  Or all of those?  Do they interact with social media?  Consumer or business?  What are their hobbies?  Are they in debt?  And so on.   Whether you’re in retail, or publishing,  financial services or telcos, technology or utilities, charities or even politics, the above issues all need to be considered within a marketing campaign.Does your product appeal to a mass market or a specific segment of the market?

And that kind of knowledge requires data – both historic behaviour and research from your own customer database, also data from third parties, which is readily available and can provide you with a wealth of geo-demographic, lifestyle, behavioural, purchase history, financial, risk and fraud data.

Of course, data’s of absolutely no use at all unless it’s turned into meaningful insight that your business can use to allow intelligent, informed decision making.  Not only that, but the ever-growing volume, sources and complexity of consumer data can be overwhelming, so it’s essential  that effective, relevant and actionable data and insights are identified for strategic  and selected to provide the best data strategy for the business throughout the customer lifecycle.  The basic goal must be to use the right data to have the right customer conversations at the right time through the right channels.

Once you know enough about them, you can start to understand the size of your market, and where to go to find prospects who look like your own customers and consider how best to attract them.  Which will be the subjects of upcoming blogs.

One final thought.  The first time you visit a river, it’s helpful to take a ghillie, who will know where the fish lie, and how best to fish for them.  Listen to every word they say and all the advice they give, so that you can learn as much as you can for the next time you want to fish that – and other – rivers. Ghillies are a canny breed, so they’ll know what you’re doing, but will generally be helpful.  

The same is true of marketing.  At TVA we are happy to act as ghillies or guides – so if you’d like to discuss how you could use and benefit from advice on data or any direct marketing channels, please don’t hesitate to give me a call.  As ever, if I can help, I’ll be happy to.  If not, I’ll make sure I point you towards people who will provide sensible, strategic advice.

Victoria Tuffill,  Partner, Tuffill Verner Associates – Multi-channel and direct marketing

Tel:         +44 (0)7967 148398  /  +44 (0)1787 277742

Email:     victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk      Multi-channel consultancy       Linked In      Twitter

 

The wilful murder of marketing

Punchy title isn’t it.  And, alas, it’s even true.  I, for one, am heartily sick of headlines telling me, and the rest of the world, that direct mail is dead … email is dead … telemarketing is dead … broadcast PR is dead … and so on with any other channel that someone wants wilfully to kill off in order to make a point (or, more worrying, has been written by someone who actually believes what they say).

The real point is that, despite protestations to the contrary, none of those individual elements are dead.  They are simply evolving.  They are part of the past, the present and the future, and need to be embraced in combination with the plethora of channels now available.

The best one I saw recently was “direct marketing is dead…” Well, direct marketing has never been more alive.  It’s evolving all the time.  And increasingly all marketers are evolving into direct marketers by the nature of the channels available.

What’s key to all this is that little has  fundamentally changed about human interaction.  We’ve always been social animals. It’s just that now we have technology that helps us keep in touch more easily, more widely, and – arguably – more superficially.  The internet, Skype, tablets, smart phones and smart TVs have been added to post, email and telephone.  And it’s fascinating to see just how quickly the ‘channel’ and ‘delivery’ and data opportunities are growing.

Also fascinating to see who’s keeping up and how they’re using the variety of tools – even those that are allegedly dead.  Last week, we received a text message from our local, The Writhing Hare, which showed the menu for that night’s Italian night. Guess what – we picked up the telephone, rang six of our friends, and booked a table for eight.  Very simple marketing.  Very inexpensive.  Highly effective.  Oh, and the pub was packed.

Horses for courses – it’s about using the right channels in effective combinations – and measuring results efficiently so that marketing attention and resource is focussed effectively. Which can be challenging in itself as the channel that reaches the consumer is increasingly less likely to be the channel through which the consumer ultimately buys …

But it’s worth remembering – humans have always interacted on a social level  – but now businesses are starting to understand that the consumer should be the centre of communications.  It is the consumer that makes their own choices about how they want to deal with retailers, brands, leisure centres etc.  They will choose whether they post a coupon, pick up a telephone, go online, send an email, or use social media to buy, ask a question or make a point.

The businesses who listen to their customers and respond accordingly will be the ones who succeed.

We’ll welcome your thoughts or comments on this post – and if you need any help with your marketing or communications strategy and/or activity – across channels or through specific channels – please don’t hesitate to give me a call.  If I can help, I’ll be happy to.  If not, I’ll at least point you to someone who will provide sensible strategic advice.

Victoria Tuffill
Partner, Tuffill Verner Associates

Tel:         +44 (0)7967 148398  /  +44 (0)1787 277742
Email:     victoria@tuffillverner.co.uk
Web:       http://www.tuffillverner.co.uk

Victoria Tuffill is a direct marketing consultant with over 30 years experience. She founded Tuffill Verner Associates consultancy with Alastair Tuffill in 1996. She is also founder and Director of Fraudscreen – a data tool that assists in the prevention of 1st party fraud. Her experience ranges across businesses including publishing, home shopping, insurance, utilities, telcos and collections.

© Victoria Tuffill and Tuffill Verner Associates, September 2012. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Victoria Tuffill and Tuffill Verner Associates with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.

Keeping Continuity Alive and Kicking

A firm staple in many a Direct Marketers diet, continuity programs present great opportunities to leverage sustainable ROI, and it seems fairly obvious – doesn’t it?  Having a portfolio of products  (or services) that are continuity based carries great benefits for business and consumer alike – but that initial, often significant investment is completely reliant on the lifetime value of those customers and their loyalty to the product they ‘signed-up’ for to be successful.  In essence that could be anything from the classic monthly subscription to magazines & books through vintage wines, chocolate and training courses.

In recent times, trends have not been great with the departure of several established continuity based companies hitting the wall, having lost their edge in this passive revenue sphere.  The factors that such perpetuity programs were forecast upon are far more volatile, helping to erode the ROI along the continuity journey. Vital LTV falls sharply as customers (across B2B & B2C) tighten belts and withdraw from subscriptions or continuity programs too early to realise the revenues needed to tick the ‘success’ box.

Of course – that’s exactly the offer we marketers often promote at the outset – there is no commitment – free to cancel at any time.  The difference is now more customers take us up on the offer – flexing their rights and greater confidence to change their minds, buy something else, respond to a new offer etc.

Analysis is key to proactive rather than passive marketing

Analysing conversion and cancellation rates over time – any business can see what’s happening after the event, but preventing it is another project entirely.  Its relative of course, not every business and product needs an equal % of initial customers to get past month x before being a valuable asset.  The great news is that business can intervene at any stage with a little creative thinking about improving customer loyalty, and without breaking the bank.

Having a high degree of segmentation and promotional material across multiple channels & offers is expensive and can be an operations nightmare, particularly if you are working with a legacy system. Crucially, work with what tools you can access and optimise them quickly – get the timing and message right and it will procure the best results possible for you.

Multi-channel opportunities can really come into play here, allowing flexible, integrated marketing strategies to work in harmony with tactical opportunities offering highly relevant communication at the right time via the right channel.  Longstanding or fixed strategies can become stale, justifiably focused on the critical initial conversion rates whether from acquisition or retention campaigns. The golden rule of quality data (not just the transactional) apply but crucially, need to extend well beyond the early order stages.

All customers are not equal …

The behaviour of customers needs to be known before it can be understood and responded to appropriately. This is not easy – we all know transactional data is not the same as behaviour – it’s just not multi-dimensional enough in an age where customers can behave erratically and spontaneously across all the channels available to them. I might order online – and complain by phone, followed by a letter….that I post on Facebook … with my angry face on Pinterest! Furthermore, as a continuity customer, I may not interact with the organisation at all along the way, until I decide to stop buying.

Of course – if you’re starting out with a continuity portfolio – getting the right infrastructure at the start will reap rewards later on.  Use a specialist multi-channel team that work together to think of EVERYTHING – you don’t need to implement everything straight away but at least have it on the watch list, creating an environment that can proactively adapt quickly to changes and demands as they arise.

Enhance every customer touchpoint as a key step to engage more, add value and gather the data needed to make the decisions that work – obviously not a process reserved for continuity programs alone, but generally better practiced for new orders or repeat business. Creating additional or tactical touchpoints is now easier than ever with online channels providing cost-effective platforms to increase contact and test ideas without significant costs when there is not necessarily a direct sale at the end of it. Equally, using more traditional methods like telemarketing and telephony in general, via non-sales routes can have a significant role to play in enhancing the relationship.

Sustainable continuity marketing has to embrace CRM principles and a large dose of common sense, ensuring we extend the life of customers and their loyalty levels as far as possible – whilst also realising it could be a shorter journey for the vast majority.  In the good old days, marketers relied heavily on customer apathy to generate this pot of passive income – getting them to and beyond break-even into profit was more about hoping they won’t back out, that they valued the offering enough to stay with an organisation.

Customers are wiser and better-informed with more choice than ever before, so marketers must also raise their game and think creatively to ensure continuity programs stay alive and kicking.

By Googie Oktem, August 2012

With 25 years expertise in the Direct Marketing industry including agency and clientside roles, Googie has a reputation for getting the job done! She has been consulting since 2001, working with clients to implement and deliver successful ROI-driven projects, both online and offline. Her specialist knowledge of using telemarketing resources and call centres produces great results for clients and suppliers, exceeding client KPIs and reducing costs on numerous end-to-end telemarketing projects.

© Googie Oktem and Tuffill Verner Associates, August 2012. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Googie Oktem and Tuffill Verner Associates with appropriate and specific direction to the original content.